Número Autores Título/Enlace Descripción Licencia
1 A. Fienga, P. Deram, V. Viswanathan, A. Di Ruscio, L. Bernus, D. Durante, M. Gastineau and J. Laskar INPOP, a 4D planetary ephemeris The orbital solutions of the Sun, the eight planets, the dwarf planet Pluto and the Moon, the libration of the Moon are available as binary or text data files. These orbital solutions are expressed in the TDB and TCB time scales. The time scale transformations TT‑TDB and TCG‑TCB are available in the binary or text data files. The binary and text data files provide the rectangular coordinates (x,y,z) in kilometers of the bodies with respect to the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The librations are given in radians. The time scale transformation TT-TDB and TCG-TCB is given in seconds for the files including it.
2 --- Minor Planet Center(MPC) The Minor Planet Center (MPC) operates at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), under the auspices of Division F (formerly Division III and, before that, Commission 20) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The Minor Planet Center derives its operating budget from a five-year NASA grant.
3 --- Comet Observation database (COBS) Comet Observation database (COBS) saw first light in 2010 and is maintained by Crni Vrh Observatory. It is a free and unique service for comet observers worldwide which allows submission, display and analysis of comet data in a single location. CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
4 T.S. Kelso Celestrak CelesTrak's mission remains focused on making data and other resources freely available to the space community to facilitate understanding of our orbital environment and how to use it safely and responsibly.
5 Mike McCants Mike McCants' Satellite Tracking Web Pages Revised quicksat.mag file.
6 Jonathan C. McDowell GCAT: General Catalog of Artificial Space Objects The General Catalog of Artificial Space Objects (GCAT) makes public the full satellite database that underlies Jonathan's Space Report
7 T.S. Kelso Satellite Catalog (SATCAT) T.S. Kelso Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)
8 --- Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS) Strasbourg astronomical Data Center (CDS) is dedicated to the collection and worldwide distribution of astronomical data and related information. The CDS hosts the SIMBAD astronomical database, the world reference database for the identification of astronomical objects; VizieR, the catalogue service for the CDS reference collection of astronomical catalogues and tables published in academic journals; and the Aladin interactive software sky atlas for access, visualization and analysis of astronomical images, surveys, catalogues, databases and related data.
9 Jean Meeus Astronomical algorithms Publisher: Willmann-Bell, Incorporated ISBN:978-0-943396-35-4 Published:01 January 1991
10 W. M. Smart Textbook on Spherical Astronomy (6th Edition) This well-established textbook gives a general but comprehensive introduction to positional astronomy. Originally based on the author's lecture courses at Cambridge University, it is intended primarily for undergraduates, but, due to its comprehensive nature, it is a very useful reference text for research workers in many branches of astronomy and space physics.
11 F. Javier Gil Chica TEORÍA DE ECLIPSES, OCULTACIONES Y TRÁNSITOS La presente obra, que puede considerarse fundamental para el astrónomo profesional o aficionado, reúne una exposición completa de la teoría geométrica de los eclipses de Sol, Luna, ocultaciones de estrellas por la Luna, ocultaciones de estrellas por planetas, ocultaciones de planetas por la Luna y tránsitos.
12 Foreman, M.G.G IOS Tidal Package The IOS Tidal Package is a set of programs, manuals, and test data for analysing and predicting tidal elevation and/or current time series.
13 Caldwell, P. C., M. A. Merrifield, P. R. Thompson (2015) University of Hawaii > Sea Level Center > Data (UHSLC Data) Sea level measured by tide gauges from global oceans — the Joint Archive for Sea Level holdings
14 Shom Le Shom est un établissement public à caractère administratif (EPA) depuis 2007. Il est placé sous la tutelle du ministère des Armées.
15 --- The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) is a national facility for looking after and distributing data concerning the marine environment.
16 --- Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is used to uniquely identify a feature on the surface of a planet or satellite so that the feature can be easily located, described, and discussed. This gazetteer contains detailed information about all names of topographic and albedo features on planets and satellites (and some planetary ring and ring-gap systems) that the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has named and approved from its founding in 1919 through the present time.
17 --- The POWER Project Provides solar and meteorological data sets from NASA research for support of renewable energy, building energy efficiency and agricultural needs.
18 --- SRTM 90m DEM Digital Elevation Database The current dataset (Version 4) has been produced based on the finished-grade 3 arc-second SRTM data released by NASA and distributed by the USGS through ftp access ( The original data came with data voids, where insufficient contrast was available in the radar data to extract the elevation. These data voids tend to occur over water bodies (lakes and rivers), areas with snow cover and in mountainous regions (for example, the Himalayas has the greatest concentration of no data voids in the original data). The CGIAR-CSI SRTM dataset has undergone post-processing of the NASA data to “fill in” the no data voids through interpolation techniques (see the Data Processing and Methodology page for detailed description). The result is seamless, complete coverage of elevation for the globe.
19 --- ISS Trajectory Data ISS trajectory data is now available to the public! This data, called an ephemeris, is generated by the ISS Trajectory Operations and Planning Officer (TOPO) flight controllers in the Mission Control Center at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. TOPO keeps track of where the ISS is, where it is going to be, and most importantly makes sure it isn’t at risk of colliding with other objects in space. At ISS’s altitude, a very thin atmosphere is still present. This thin atmosphere creates drag and over time can cause TOPO’s predicted ISS trajectory to accumulate error. Because of this, TOPO updates the predicted trajectory approximately three times a week, so the ISS Flight Control Team has the best trajectory estimate possible. An accurate trajectory is essential for maintaining communications links, planning visiting vehicle rendezvous, and ensuring ISS’s path is clear of any potential collisions.
20 T.S. Kelso ISS RMS Data Derived from NASA OEM Ephemeris Data in 6-hour segments. Additional information can be found at Spot the Station.
21 --- International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) The IERS provides data on Earth orientation, on the International Celestial Reference System/Frame, on the International Terrestrial Reference System/Frame, and on geophysical fluids. It maintains also Conventions containing models, constants and standards.
22 --- The astronomical almanac The Astronomical Almanac contains a wide variety of both technical and general astronomical information. The book is a worldwide resource for fundamental astronomical data. It is a joint publication of the U.S. Nautical Almanac Office at the U.S. Naval Observatory and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office in the UK, and contains data supplied by many scientists and institutions from around the world.
23 --- (Requiere registro) promotes space flight safety, protection of the space environment and the peaceful use of space worldwide by sharing space situational awareness services and information with U.S. and international satellite owners/operators, academia and other entities.
24 Ernie Wright (USRA), Noah Petro (NASA/GSFC) CGI Moon Kit (NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio) These color and elevation maps are designed for use in 3D rendering software. They are created from data assembled by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter camera and laser altimeter instrument teams.
25 --- IAU Standards of Fundamental Astronomy (SOFA) SOFA operates under the auspices of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to provide algorithms and software for use in astronomical computing. The initiative is managed by an international panel, the SOFA Board, appointed through IAU Division A. The Board obtains the latest IAU-approved models and theories from the fundamental-astronomy community, implements them as computer code and checks them for accuracy. SOFA works closely with all the Commissions of the Division and with the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). The SOFA Collection consists of two libraries of routines, one coded in Fortran 77 the other in ANSI C. There is a suite of vector/matrix routines and various utilities that underpin the astronomy algorithms, which include routines for the following: Astrometry, Calendars, Time Scales, Ecliptic Coordinates, Earth Rotation and Sidereal Time, Ephemerides (medium precision), Fundamental Arguments, Galactic Coordinates, Geocentric/Geodetic Transformations, Precession, Nutation and Polar Motion, Star Catalog Conversion SOFA License
26 Karpov et al. 2015 MMT-9 database The database contains the satellites observed by MMT and identified using publicly available TLE data. The standard magnitudes (corresponding to the phase angle 90 deg and the distance of 1000 km outside the penumbra) have been computed for every satellite, and rough classification of its variability is performed: periodic (significantly periodic light curves), aperiodic (stochastic brightness variations or not enough data to estimate the period) and non-variable (brightness is not varying significantly). The satellite information includes its catalogue ID and name, launch date and standard magnitude averaged over all available non-penumbral observations. Every track contains information on the distance and phase angle changing during the passage of satellite through MMT field of view, as well as its apparent brightness and standard magniude. The following paper describes the database: Karpov et al, "Massive photometry of low-altitude artificial satellites on Mini-Mega-TORTORA" , Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (Serie de Conferencias) Vol. 48, pp. 112-113 (2016)
27 --- Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) The Jet Propulsion Laboratory holds a unique place in the universe. We are a leader in robotic space exploration, sending rovers to Mars, probes into the farthest reaches of the solar system, and satellites to advance understanding of our home planet.
28 --- European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement.
29 --- JPL Planetary and Lunar Ephemerides JPL planetary ephemerides are generally created to support spacecraft missions to the planets. Selected ephemerides are recommended for more general use. The latest JPL ephemeris with fully consistent treatment of planetary and lunar laser ranging data is DE440 (Park et al., 2021). The dynamical model for DE440 includes a frictional damping between the fluid core and the elastic mantle. This damping term is not suitable for extrapolation more than several centuries into the past. In order to cover a longer time span, the ephemeris DE441 was integrated without the lunar core/mantle damping term. The positions of the planets for DE441 agree with the positions on DE440 to within one meter over the time covered by DE440. For the Moon DE441 differs from DE440 mainly in the estimated tidal damping term causing a difference in along-track position of the Moon of ~10 meters 100 years from the present and growing quadratically for times more thna 100 years from present. The JPL planetary ephemerides are saved as files of Chebyshev polynomials fit to the Cartesian positions and velocities of the planets, Sun, and Moon, typically in 32-day intervals. The positions are integrated in astronomical units (au), but with polynomials stored in units of kilometers. The integration time units are days of barycentric dynamical time (TDB). In DE440, similar to DE430, the astronomical units has been fixed to the value 149597870.700 km as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 2012. Most JPL planetary ephemeris files include Chebyshev polynomials fit to the lunar libration angles, which are integrated along with the planetary positions. Many ephemeris files also a fit to the 1980 IAU nutation series. While the 1980 IAU nutation series is not current, it is maintained in the files for backward compatibility.
30 N.A. Moskovitz, L. Wasserman, B. Burt, R. Schottland, E. Bowell, M. Bailen, M. Granvik The astorb database at Lowell Observatory The astorb database at Lowell Observatory is an actively curated catalog of all known asteroids in the Solar System. astorb has heritage dating back to the 1970s and has been publicly accessible since the 1990s. Work began in 2015 to modernize the underlying database infrastructure, operational software, and associated web applications. That effort involved the expansion of astorb to incorporate new data such as physical properties (e.g. albedo, colors, spectral types) from a variety of sources. The data in astorb are used to support a number of research tools hosted at Here we present a full description of the software tools, computational foundation, and data products upon which the astorb ecosystem has been built.
31 --- Space-Track promotes space flight safety, protection of the space environment and the peaceful use of space worldwide by sharing space situational awareness services and information with U.S. and international satellite owners/operators, academia and other entities. Requiere registro y permiso.